top of page
Evolution of Bioactive Glass

Bioactive Glass Properties

Bioactive Glass Background

  • The 45S5 formulation of bioactive glass has been the primary material used in today's bioactive glass bone graft products (45% SiO2, 24.5% CaO, 24.5% Na2O, and 6% P2O5).


  • When implanted, 45S5 bioactive glass undergoes a dissolution process that releases ions from the glass.  45S5 bioactive glass particles are fully resorbed and replaced by bone within approximately 9-12 months.


  • The dissolution process is governed by the shape and size of the particle.  Due to a higher surface area, smaller particles will dissolve faster than larger particles.  In addition, spherical particles will have more reproducible ion release.

Bioactive Glass

Bioactive Properties

  • The bioactive properties of 45S5 glass are due to the ability of the material to form a bone-like mineral layer on its surface (hydroxy-carbano-apatite - HCA). [1]  As the bioactive glass particles begins to dissolve in vivo, the ions released from the glass combine with local ions to form an HCA coating on the surface.


  • Due to the similarity of the HCA layer to bone mineral, the coating provides an optimal surface for new bone formation and results in a chemical bond between the bioactive glass particles and the surrounding bone.

Bioactive Properties

Cellular Effects

  • During the dissolution of 45S5 bioactive glass, a variety of ions are released from the material (silica, calcium, phosphate, and sodium ions).

  • In vitro testing of 45S5 bioactive glass has shown that the dissolution ions positively affect cells involved in bone formation. [2,3]  

Cellular Effects


  1. Hench l.  "Bioactive Materials:  The Potential for Tissue Regeneration."  J. Biomed. Mat. Res.41: 511-518 (1998).

   2. Xynos I.  "Gene-expression profiling human osteoblasts following treatment with the ionic products of Bioglass 45S5 dissolution."  J. Biomed. Mat.           Res. 55:151-157 (2001).

   3. Bosetti M.  "The effect of bioactive glasses on bone marrow stromal cells differentiation."  Biomaterials.  26:3873-3879 (2005).

bottom of page